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MANCHESTER UNITED

Full nameManchester United Football ClubNickname(s)The Red DevilsFounded1878; 134 years ago (1878), as Newton Heath LYR F.C.GroundOld Trafford- Capacity75,731OwnerManchester United plc (NYSE: MANU)Co-chairmenJoel andAvram GlazerManagerDavid MoyesLeaguePremier League2012–13Premier League, 1stWebsiteClub home pageHomecoloursAwaycoloursThirdcoloursCurrent season
Manchester United Football Club is an English professionalfootball club, based inOld Trafford,Greater Manchester, that plays in thePremier League. Founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, the club changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved toOld Trafford in 1910.
Manchester United have won many trophies inEnglish football, including a record 20League titles, a record 11FA Cups, fourLeague Cups and a record 20FA Community Shields. The club has also won threeEuropean Cups, oneUEFA Cup Winners' Cup, oneUEFA Super Cup, oneIntercontinental Cup and oneFIFA Club World Cup. In1998–99, the club won acontinental treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup and the UEFA Champions League, an unprecedented feat for an English club.
The 1958Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players. In 1968, under the management ofMatt Busby, Manchester United was the first English football club to win theEuropean Cup. SirAlex Ferguson won 25 major honours, and 38 in total, from November 1986 to May 2013, when he announced his retirement after 26 years at the club. Fellow ScotDavid Moyes was appointed as his replacement on 9 May 2013.
Manchester United is one of the wealthiest and most widely supported football teams in the world. After being floated on theLondon Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was purchased byMalcolm Glazer in May 2005 in a deal valuing the club at almost £800 million. In August 2012, Manchester United made aninitial public offering on theNew York Stock Exchange. In January 2013, Manchester United became the first sports team in the world to be valued at  billion. Forbes Magazine valued the club at  billion –  billion higher than the next most valuable sports team.
Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway(LYR) depot at Newton Heath. [ 15 ]The team initially played games against other departments and rail companies, but on 20 November 1880, they competed in their first recorded match; wearing the colours of the railway company – green and gold – they were defeated 6–0 by Bolton Wanderers' reserve team. [ 16 ]By 1888, the clubhad become a founding member of The Combination, a regional football league. Following the league's dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joinedthe newly formed Football Alliance, which ran for three seasons before being merged with the Football League. This resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the rail company and dropped the"LYR" from its name. [ 15 ]After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division. [ 15 ]
The Manchester United team at the start of the 1905–06 season, in which they were runners-up in theSecond Division
In January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £250,000 as of 2013 [ nb 1 ]– the club was served with a winding-up order. [ 17 ]Captain Harry Staffordfound four local businessmen, including John Henry Davies(who became club president), each willing to invest £500 in return for a direct interest inrunning the club and who subsequently changed the name; [ 18 ]on 24 April 1902,Manchester United was officially born. [ 19 ] [ nb 2 ]Under Ernest Mangnall, who assumed managerial duties in1903, the team finished as Second Division runners-up in 1906 and secured promotion to the First Division, which they won in 1908 – the club's first leaguetitle. The following season began with victory in the firstever Charity Shield [ 20 ]andended with the club's first FA Cup title. Manchester United won the First Division for thesecond time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the clubto join Manchester City. [ 21 ]
In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, whereit remained until regaining promotion in 1925. Relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Following the death of the club's principal benefactor,J. H. Davies, in October 1927, the club's finances deteriorated to the extent that Manchester United wouldlikely have gone bankrupt had it not been for James W. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000 and assumed control of the club. [ 22 ]In the 1938–39 season,the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th inthe First Division. [ 22 ]
Busby years (1945–1969)
Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1945–1969)
The Busby Babes in Denmark in 1955
In October 1945, the impending resumption of football led to the managerial appointment of Matt Busby, who demanded an unprecedented level of control over team selection, player transfers and trainingsessions. [ 23 ]Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947, 1948and 1949, and to FA Cup victory in 1948. In 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. [ 24 ]With an average age of 22, the medialabelled the back-to-back title winning side of 1956 "theBusby Babes", a testament toBusby's faith in his youth players. [ 25 ]In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup,despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelseathe same opportunity the previous season. [ 26 ]En route to thesemi-final, which they lost to Real Madrid, the team recorded a 10–0 victory over Belgian champions Anderlecht, which remains the club's biggest victory on record. [ 27 ]
A plaque at Old Trafford in memory of thosewho died in the Munich air disaster, including players' names
The following season, on the way home from a European Cup quarter-final victory against Red Star Belgrade, the aircraft carrying the
Manchester United players, officials and journalists crashed while attempting to take off after refuelling in Munich, Germany. The Munich air disasterof 6 February 1958 claimed 23 lives, including those of eight players – Geoff Bent, Roger Byrne, Eddie Colman, Duncan Edwards, Mark Jones, David Pegg, Tommy Taylorand Billy Whelan– and injured several more. [ 28 ] [ 29 ]
Reserve team manager Jimmy Murphytook over as manager while Busby recovered from his injuries and the club's makeshift side reached the FA Cup final, which they lost to Bolton Wanderers. In recognition ofthe team's tragedy, UEFAinvited the club to compete inthe 1958–59 European Cupalongside eventual League champions Wolverhampton Wanderers
Bryan Robsonwas the captain of Manchester Unitedfor 12 years, longer than any other player. [ 35 ]
F****g an eighth-place finish in the 1969–70 seasonand a poor start to the 1970–71 season, Busby waspersuaded to temporarily resume managerial duties, and McGuinness returned to his position as reserve team co****n June 1971, Frank O'Farrellwas appointed as manager, but lasted less than 18 months before being replaced by Tommy Dochertyin December 1972. [ 36 ]Docherty saved Manchester United from relegation that season, only to see them relegated in 1974; by that time the trio of Best, Law, and Charlton had left the club. [ 32 ]The team won promotion at the first attemptand reached the FA Cup final in 1976, but were beaten by Southampton. They reached the final again in 1977, beating Liverpool2–1. Docherty was dismissed shortly afterwards, following the revelation of his affair with the club physiotherapist's wife. [ 34 ] [ 37 ]
Dave Sextonreplaced Doche**** manager in the summer of 19**** Despite major signings, including Joe Jordan, Gordon McQueen, Gary Bailey, and Ray Wilkins, the team failed to achieve any significant results; they finished in the top two in 1979–80 and lost to Arsenalin the 1979 FA Cup Final. Sexton was dismissed in 1981, even though the team won t****last seven games under his direction. [ 38 ]He was replaced by Ron Atkinson, who immediately broke the British record transfer fee to sign Bryan Robsonfrom West Bromwich Albion. Under Atkinson, Manchester United won the FA Cup twice in three years –in 1983and 1985. In 1985–86, after 13 wins and two draws in its first 15 matches, the club was favourite to win the league, but finished in fourth place. The following season, with the club in danger of relegation by November, Atkinson was dismissed. [ 39 ]
Ferguson years (1986–2013)
Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1986–2013)
Alex Fergusonmanaged the team between 1986 and 2013.
Alex Fergusonand his assistant Archie Knoxarrived from Aberdeenon the day of Atkinson's dismissal, [ 40 ]and guided the club to an 11th-place finish in the league. [ 41 ]Despite a second-place finishin 1987–88, the club was back in 11th place the following season. [ 42 ]Reportedly on the verge of being dismissed, victory over Crystal Palacein the 1990 FA Cup Finalreplay (after a 3–3 draw) saved Ferguson's career. [ 43 ] [ 44 ]The following season, Manchester United claimed itsfirst Cup Winners' Cuptitle and competed in the 1991 UEFA Super Cup, beating European Cupholders Red Star Belgrade1–0 in the finalat Old Trafford. A second consecutive League Cup final appearance followed in 1992,in which the team beat Nottingham Forest 1–0 at Wembley. [ 39 ]In 1993, the club won its first league title since 1967, and a year later,for the first time since 1957, it won a second consecutive title – alongside the FA Cup –to complete the first " Double" in the club's history. [ 39 ]
Ryan Giggsis the most decorated player in English football history. [ 45 ]
In the 1998–99 season, Manchester United became the first team to win the Premier League, FA Cup and UEFA Champions League –"The Treble" – in the same season. [ 46 ]Losing 1–0 going into injury timein the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final, Teddy Sheringhamand Ole Gunnar Solskjærscored late goals to claim a dramatic victory over Bayern Munich,in what is considered one of the greatest comebacks of alltime. [ 47 ]The club also wonthe Intercontinental Cup afterbeating Palmeiras1–0 in Tokyo. [ 48 ]Ferguson was subsequently knighted for his services to football. [ 49 ]
Manchester United won the league again in the 1999–2000and 2000–01seasons. The team finished third in 2001–02, before regaining the title in 2002–03. They won the 2003–04 FA Cup, beating Millwall3–0 in the final at the Millennium Stadiumin Cardiff. [ 50 ]In the 2005–06 season, Manchester United failed to qualify for the knockout phase of the UEFA ChampionsLeague for the first time in over a ...
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